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    LI Xiang,SU Jie,ZHAO Jinping. 2014. An evaluation of the simulations of the Arctic Intermediate Water in climate models and reanalyses. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 33(12):1-14
    An evaluation of the simulations of the Arctic Intermediate Water in climate models and reanalyses
    氣候模式和再分析數據中北冰洋中層水再現能力的評估
    Received:March 28, 2014  Revised:June 19, 2014
    DOI:10.1007/s13131-014-0567-6
    Key words:Arctic Intermediate Water  model evaluation  Arctic modeling  impact of data assimilation
    中文關鍵詞:  
    基金項目:The National Basic Research Program (973 Program) of China under contract No. 2013CBA01805; the National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract No. 41330960; the Plan 111 of Ocean University of China under contract B07036.
    Author NameAffiliationE-mail
    LI Xiang Key Laboratory of Physical Oceanography, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China
    Key Laboratory of Ocean Circulation and Wave, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China 
     
    SU Jie Key Laboratory of Physical Oceanography, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China sujie@ouc.edu.cn 
    ZHAO Jinping Key Laboratory of Physical Oceanography, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China  
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    Abstract:
          The simulations of the Arctic Intermediate Water in four datasets of climate models and reanalyses, CCSM3, CCSM4, SODA and GLORYS, are analyzed and evaluated. The climatological core temperatures and depths in both CCSM models exhibit deviations over 0.5℃ and 200 m from the PHC. SODA reanalysis reproduces relatively reasonable spatial patterns of core temperature and depth, while GLORYS, another reanalysis, shows a remarkable cooling and deepening drift compared with the result at the beginning of the dataset especially in the Eurasian Basin (about 2℃). The heat contents at the depth of intermediate water in the CCSM models are overestimated with large positive errors nearly twice of that in the PHC. To the contrary, the GLORYS in 2009 show a negative error with a similar magnitude, which means the characteristic of the water mass is totally lost. The circulations in the two reanalyses at the depth of intermediate water are more energetic and realistic than those in the CCSMs, which is attributed to the horizontal eddy-permitting resolution. The velocity fields and the transports in the Fram Strait are also investigated. The necessity of finer horizontal resolution is concluded again. The northward volume transports are much larger in the two reanalyses, although they are still weak comparing with mooring observations. Finally, an investigation of the impact of assimilation is done with an evidence of the heat input from assimilation. It is thought to be a reason for the good performance in the SODA, while the GLORYS drifts dramatically without assimilation data in the Arctic Ocean.
    中文摘要:
          本文分析評估了CCSM3、CCSM4氣候模式和SODA和GLORYS兩個再分析數據對北冰洋中層水的表現。兩個CCSM模式氣候態結果的北冰洋中層水核心溫度較PHC整體偏高約0.5℃,中層水核心深度也存在200米的偏差。SODA是四套數據中空間分布最好的,再現了相對合理的核心溫度、深度和熱含量的空間分布。而另一套再分析數據GLORYS則在17年的運行過程中存在顯著的模式漂移,特別是歐亞海盆東部的北冰洋中層水核心溫度在17年中降低了約2℃。與PHC數據相比,CCSM模式的北冰洋中層水熱含量高估了幾乎2倍。相反的,GLORYS在數據的最后年份表現出相同量級的低估,意味著該結果中北冰洋中層水高溫的特性不復存在。從中層流場上看,相對于粗網格的CCSM模式結果,渦分辨率的再分析數據模擬出相對復雜且合理的北極環極邊界流。此外,本文還分析了弗拉姆海峽橫斷面的溫度、流速與通量,并再次指出高水平分辨率對模擬中層水的必要性。在兩個再分析數據中,向北的體積通量雖然與錨定浮標實測資料相比仍較弱,但比CCSM模式的結果強很多,且結構更合理。最后,通過分析相鄰兩月的核心溫度大面場,證明同化數據是SODA數據北冰洋中層水良好的再現能力的原因之一,暗示了這些再分析數據所依賴的大洋環流模式對北冰洋中層水模擬能力上的不足。同時這也解釋了兩套再分析數據之間的差異,因為SODA具有北冰洋的同化數據,而GLORYS沒有。
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