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    李立,吳日升,郭小鋼.南海的季節環流─TOPEX/POSEIDON衛星測高應用研究[J].海洋學報,2000,22(6):13-26
    南海的季節環流─TOPEX/POSEIDON衛星測高應用研究
    Seasonal circulation in the South China Sea-a TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite altimetry study
    投稿時間:1999-11-25  修訂日期:2000-05-08
    DOI:
    中文關鍵詞:  南海環流  衛星高度計  季風  黑潮
    英文關鍵詞:South China Sea circulation  satellite altimeter  monsoon  Kurashio
    基金項目:“國家重點基礎研究發展規劃”G19990438項目;“國家科委攀登A計劃”南海季風試驗項目;國家自然科學基金重點資助項目(編號:49630045);和國家海洋局的資助
    作者單位
    李立 國家海洋局第三海洋研究所, 廈門 361005
    海洋環境科學和數值模擬國家海洋局重點實驗室, 青島 266061 
    吳日升 國家海洋局第三海洋研究所, 廈門 361005 
    郭小鋼 國家海洋局第三海洋研究所, 廈門 361005 
    摘要點擊次數: 3439
    全文下載次數: 2421
    中文摘要:
          應用1992~1996年的TOPEX/POSEIDON衛星高度計遙感資料,研究了冬、夏季風強盛期多年平均的南海上層環流結構。研究結果表明,南海上層流結構呈明顯的季節變化,在很大程度上受該海區冬、夏交替的季風支配。冬季總環流呈氣旋型,并發育有兩個次海盆尺度氣旋型環流;夏季總環流大致呈反氣旋型、但在南海東部18°N以南海域未見明顯流系發育。研究還表明,南海環流的西向強化趨勢明顯,無論冬、夏在中南半島沿岸和巽他陸架外緣均存在急流,其流向冬、夏相反,是南海上層環流中最強勁的一支。鑒于該海流的動力特征與海洋動力學中定義的漂流不同,有相當大的地轉成分,建議稱為“南海季風急流(South China Sea MonsoonJet)”.冬季南下的季風急流在南海南部受巽他陸架阻擋折向東北,沿加里曼丹島和巴拉望島外海有較強東北向流發育。夏季北上的季風急流在海南島東南分為兩支:北支沿陸架北上,似為傳統意義上的南海暖流;南支沿18°N向東橫穿南海后折向東北;二者之間(陸架坡折附近)為弱流區。兩分支在汕頭外海匯合后,南海暖流流速增強。就多年平均而言,黑潮只在冬季侵入南海東北部,并在南海北部誘生一個次海盆尺度的氣旋型環流,這時南海暖流只出現在汕頭以東海域.夏季南海北部完全受東北向流控制,未見黑潮入侵跡象.用衛星跟蹤海面漂流浮標觀測進行的對比驗證表明,以上遙感分析結果與海上觀測一致。
    英文摘要:
          The mean seasonal circulation in upper layer of the South China Sea (SCS) is studied using TOPEX/PnSE1DON altimetrv remnte sensing products from 1992 to 1996.The research results reveal that upper layer circulation in the SCS is predominated by seasonal alternating monsoons and its pattern varies seasonally.The winter general circulation appears to be cyclone consisted of two sub-basin cyclonic gyres.The summer circulation is generally anticyclonic,but no systematic current structure is found in the eastern SCS south of 18°N.The results also indicate that circulation in the SCS is notably westen intensified.A jet is observed,in both winter and summer,off the coast of Vietnam and the outer edge of Sunda shelf.It appears to be the strongest current in the SCS,which flows southword in winter,but northward in summer.Since the dynamic feature of this jet is mainly geostrophic rather than wind drifting,it is suggested that name it as a jet (the SCS Monsoon Jet) instead of a drift.In winter,the Sunda shelf blocks the southward flowing jet and a northeastward return current is developed along coasts of Kalimantan and Palawan Ialands.In summer,the northward flowing jet splits off the southeast coast of Hainan Island.The northern branch flows along the China shelf,consisting with the traditional path of the SCS Warm Current.The southern branch flows to the east along 18°N across the basin,turns to northeast,and joints the northern branch again off Shantou.The SCS Warm Current is strengthened there by reunification and a zone of weak flow is observed near the shelf break between these branches.In the sense of multiyear mean,the Kuroshio intrudes into the northeastern SCS only in winter and induces a sub-basin cyclonic gyre in the northern SCS.At this period,the SCS Warm Current only exists in the area east of Shantou.In summer,the predominated current in the northern SCS is northeastward.There is no indication of Kuroshio invasion there.Validation using observations from satellite tracking surface drifting buoy shows that these remote sensing results are in good agreement with surface observation.
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