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    楊建斌,姚鵬,張曉華.南海北部神狐海域營養鹽濃度與結構的分布特征及影響因素[J].海洋學報,2020,42(10):132-143
    南海北部神狐海域營養鹽濃度與結構的分布特征及影響因素
    The distribution and controlling factors of the concentration and structure of dissolved inorganic nutrients in the Shenhu Area, northern South China Sea
    投稿時間:2020-01-17  修訂日期:2020-07-02
    DOI:10.3969/j.issn.0253-4193.2020.10.013
    中文關鍵詞:  神狐海域  營養鹽  濃度  結構  影響因素
    英文關鍵詞:Shenhu Area  nutrients  concentration  structure  controlling factors
    基金項目:中國地質調查局地質調查項目(DD20160221)。
    作者單位E-mail
    楊建斌 中國海洋大學 海洋化學理論與工程技術教育部重點實驗室,山東 青島 266100  
    姚鵬 中國海洋大學 海洋化學理論與工程技術教育部重點實驗室,山東 青島 266100
    青島海洋科學與技術試點國家實驗室 海洋生態與環境科學功能實驗室,山東 青島 266237 
    yaopeng@ouc.edu.cn 
    張曉華 青島海洋科學與技術試點國家實驗室 海洋生態與環境科學功能實驗室,山東 青島 266237
    中國海洋大學 海洋生命學院,山東 青島 266003 
     
    摘要點擊次數: 1181
    全文下載次數: 4097
    中文摘要:
          生源要素是海洋初級生產的基礎,其在海洋環境中的循環受到多種物理、化學和生物過程的影響,對其濃度分布、結構特點及影響因素的認識是理解海洋生態系統動力學的基礎。于2019年2月在南海北部神狐海域進行了現場考察和海水樣品采集,對海水中的溶解態無機營養鹽濃度進行了分析,并結合溫度、鹽度、葉綠素a(Chl a)、pH和溶解氧(DO)等水文環境參數,研究了神狐海域海水中營養鹽濃度與結構的分布特征及影響因素等。在0~30 m的海水中各營養鹽濃度均很低,隨著深度的增加,營養鹽濃度逐漸增大。在水深3 000 m左右處,無機氮、磷酸鹽和硅酸鹽濃度分別達到了38.02 μmol/L、2.71 μmol/L和149.07 μmol/L。溫度、pH和DO與各營養鹽濃度均具有顯著的相關性,表明環境因素影響著營養鹽的生物地球化學過程。此外,在75 m深度,研究區域東北方向的站位營養鹽濃度相對較低,并呈現向西南方向逐漸增大的變化趨勢,可能與高溫、高鹽和低營養鹽的黑潮水入侵有關。根據端元混合模型計算所得保守混合濃度與實測值的差值顯示,在75 m深度硅酸鹽和磷酸鹽以生物消耗為主,而硝酸鹽存在添加。隨磷酸鹽濃度增加,各站位無機氮濃度呈線性升高,但硅酸鹽濃度則以冪函數式升高,表明不同營養鹽之間再生速率和再利用效率有所不同。神狐海域的N/P比與Si/N比和Si/P比呈現出截然相反的變化趨勢。在0~30 m,N/P比較小而Si/N比和Si/P比較大;在75 m,受不同生物作用影響,N/P比變大,Si/N比和Si/P比變??;在75 m以下N/P比逐漸降低至14.44,而Si/N比和Si/P比則逐漸升高;在1 000 m以下,各營養鹽比例均保持穩定。氮異常指數的計算結果顯示,神狐海域300 m以上的海水中固氮作用強于反硝化作用,而300 m以下反硝化作用增強。神狐海域營養鹽濃度與結構的分布特征表明黑潮入侵和生物活動顯著影響了此區域營養鹽的生物地球化學過程。
    英文摘要:
          Biogenic elements are the basis of primary production in marine systems. Their cycles in marine environments are affected by various physical, chemical, and biological processes. Understanding the concentration distribution, structural characteristics, and influencing factors of biogenic elements are essential to understand the dynamics of marine ecosystems. In February 2019, a field investigation was conducted in the Shenhu Area of the northern South China Sea and seawater samples were collected to analyze dissolved inorganic nutrients. Combined with the hydrological environment parameters, such as temperature, salinity, chlrophyll a (Chl a), pH and dissolved oxygen (DO), the distribution and controlling factor of nutrient concentration and structure in the Shenhu Area were discussed. Concentrations of each nutrient in the seawaters from 0 m to 30 m were very low, and the nutrient concentrations gradually increased with the increase of depth. At the depth of about 3 000 m, the concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), phosphate and silicate reached 38.02 μmol/L, 2.71 μmol/L and 149.07 μmol/L, respectively. Temperature, pH and DO were significantly correlated with nutrients, indicating that environmental factors greatly affected the biogeochemical processes of nutrients. In addition, the concentration of nutrients in the northeast direction of the study area at a depth of 75 m was relatively low and showed a gradual increasing trend in the southwest direction, which may be related to the intrusion of Kuroshio water with high temperature, high salinity and low nutrients. Meanwhile, the difference between the conservative mixing concentrations calculated based on an end-member mixing model and the measured values of nutrients showed that, at 75 m depth, silicate and phosphate were consumed by biological activities, while nitrates were controlled by biological addition. With the increase of phosphate, the DIN at each site increased linearly, but the silicate increased with a power function, indicating that the regeneration rate and recycling efficiency were different for different nutrients. The ratios of N/P in the Shenhu Area showed opposite trends compared with the ratios of Si/N and Si/P. At 0-30 m, the N/P ratios were low and the Si/N and Si/P ratios were high. At 75 m, the N/P ratios increased along with the decrease of Si/N and Si/P ratios possibly because of different biological effects. Below 75 m, the N/P ratios gradually decreased to 14.44, while the Si/N and Si/P ratios gradually increased. All nutrient ratios remained stable below 1 000 m. The calculation results of the N-anomaly showed that nitrogen fixation in seawater above 300 m was stronger than denitrification, and denitrification below 300 m was enhanced. The distribution characteristics of the concentration and structure of nutrients in the Shenhu Area indicated that the Kuroshio intrusion and biological activities significantly affected the biogeochemical process of nutrients in this area.
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